Calculus

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I recommend this book: A Course of Modern Analysis by Whittaker and Watson. You may also find this book at Google Books. This book is a hundred years old and is considered the classic calculus book.

Contents


Derivatives

Definition of Derivative

f'(x)=\lim_{\Delta x \to 0}\frac{f(x+\Delta x)-f(x)}{\Delta x}, provided the limit exists.

For the following problems, find the derivative using the definition of the derivative.

solution f(x)=x\,

solution f(x)=2x^3\,

solution f(x)=\sqrt{x}\,

solution f(x)=\frac{1}{x}\,

solution f(x)=\sin x\,

solution h(x)=f(x)+g(x)\,

Power Rule

\frac{d}{dx}(x^n)=nx^{n-1}\,

For the following problems, compute the derivative of y=f(x)\, with respect to x\,

solution f(x)=150\pi\,

solution f(x)=7x^4\,

solution f(x)=27x^2+\frac{12}{\pi}x+e^{e^{\pi}}\,

solution f(x)=8x^5+4x^4+6x^3+x+7\,

solution f(x)=\frac{1}{\sqrt [4] {x}}\,

solution f(x)=7x^{-4}+12x^{-2}-x^{\frac{1}{2}}+6x+\pi x^{\frac{3}{5}}+x^{-\frac{3}{4}}\,

solution Derive the power rule for positive integer powers from the definition of the derivative (Hint: Use the Binomial Expansion)

Product Rule

\frac{d}{dx}(ab)=ab'+a'b\,

For the following problems, compute the derivative of y=f(x)\, with respect to x\,

solution f(x)=x\sin x\,

solution f(x)=x^3\cos x\,

solution f(x)=\tan x\sec x\,

solution f(x)=2x\sin (2x)\,

solution f(x)=(x)(x+7)(x-12)\,

solution Derive the Product Rule using the definition of the derivative

Quotient Rule

\left(\frac{a}{b}\right)'=\frac{ba'-ab'}{b^2}\,

For the following problems, compute the derivative of y=f(x)\, with respect to x

solution f(x)=\frac{x}{x+1}\,

solution f(x)=\frac{x^2}{\sin x}\,

solution f(x)=\frac{\sin^2x}{x^3}\,

solution f(x)=\frac{x\sin x}{e^x}\,

solution f(x)=\frac{x+7}{(x-6)(x+2)}\,

solution Derive the Quotient Rule formula. (Hint: Use the Product Rule).

Generalized Power Rule

\frac{d}{dx}(f(x))^n=n(f(x))^{n-1}f'(x)\,

For the following problems, compute the derivative of y=f(x)\, with respect to x

solution f(x)=(x^3+7x)^3\,

solution f(x)=\sin^4(x)\,

solution f(x)=\left(\ln x\right)^{-4}\,

solution f(x)=\tan^2x+8(x^2+4x+3)^9+\sec^3x\,

solution f(x)=\left(\frac{5x}{7x+9}\right)^3\,


Chain Rule

\frac{d}{dx}f(g(x))=f'(g(x))g'(x)\,

For the following problems, compute the derivative of y=f(x)\, with respect to x

solution f(x)=\ln (7x^2e^x\sin x)\,

solution f(x)=\sin^2(7x+5) + \cos^2(7x+5)\,

solution f(x)=6e^{3x}\tan(5x)\,

solution f(x)=\ln (\sin (e^x))\,

solution f(x)=\sin (\cos (\tan x))\,

solution f(x)=e^{x^2}\sin (14x)-\cos (e^x)\,

solution f(x)=\frac{\frac{\sin (5x)}{(x^2+1)^2}}{\cos^3(3x)-1}\,

solution  \left ( f(g(x)) \right )' = f'(g(x))g'(x)

solution  \sqrt[]{x+\sqrt[]{x+\sqrt[]{x}}}

solution f(x)=x^2\sqrt{9-x^2}\,

Implicit Differentiation

For the following problems, compute the derivative of y=f(x)\, with respect to x

solution \sin (xy)=x\,

solution x+xy+x^2+xy^2=0\,

solution y=x(y+1)\,

solution yx=x^y\, where y\, is a function of x\,


Logarithmic Differentiation

For the following problems, compute the derivative of y=f(x)\, with respect to x

solution f(x)=4^{\sin x}\,

solution f(x)=x^x\,

solution f(x)=x^{x^{{\cdot}^{{\cdot}^{\cdot}}}} \,

solution f(x)=g(x)^{h(x)}\, for any functions g(x)\, and h(x)\, where g(x) \ne 0\,

Second Fundamental Theorem of Calculus

\frac{d}{dx}\int_{a}^{x}f(t)\,dt=f(x)\,

For the following problems, compute the derivative of y=f(x)\, with respect to x

solution f(x)=\int_{0}^{x}e^t\,dt\,

solution f(x)=\int_{5}^{x}27t^t\sin (t-1)\,dt\,

solution f(x)=\int_{4}^{x^2}\sin (e^t)\,dt\,

solution f(x)=\int_{x^2}^{3x^4}\cos (t)\,dt\,

solution Give a proof of the theorem

Applications of Derivatives

Slope of the Tangent Line

solution Find the slope of the tangent line to the graph f(x) = 6x when x = 3.

solution Find the slope of the tangent line to the graph f(x) = sin2x when x = π.

solution Find the slope of the tangent line to the graph f(x) = cosx + x5 when x=\frac{\pi}{2}.

solution Find the equation of the tangent line to the graph f(x) = xex + x + 5 when x = 0.

solution Find the slope of the tangent line to the graph f(x) = x2 when x = 0,1,2,3,4,5,6.

solution Find the slope of the tangent line to the graph x2 + y2 = 9 at the point (0, − 3).

solution Find the equation of the tangent line to the graph xy = y2x2 + y + x + 2 at the point (0, − 2).


Extrema (Maxima and Minima)

solution Find the absolute minimum and maximum on [ − 1,5] of the function f(x) = (1 − x)ex.

solution Find the absolute minimum and maximum on \left[-\frac{\pi}{2},\frac{\pi}{2}\right] of the function f(x) = sin(x2).

solution Find all local minima and maxima of the function f(x) = x2.

solution Find all local minima and maxima of the function f(x)=\frac{x^2-1}{x}.

solution If a farmer wants to put up a fence along a river, so that only 3 sides need to be fenced in, what is the largest area he can fence with 100 feet of fence?

solution If a fence is to be made with three pens, the three connected side-by-side, find the dimensions which give the largest total area if 200 feet of fence are to be used.

solution Find the local minima and maxima of the function f(x)=\sqrt {x}.

Related Rates

solution A clock face has a 12 inch diameter, a 5.5-inch second hand, a 5 inch minute hand and a 3 inch hour hand. When it is exactly 3:30, calculate the rate at which the distance between the tip of any one of these hands and the 9 o'clock position is changing.

solution A spherical container of r meters is being filled with a liquid at a rate of \rho\,{\rm m}^3/{\rm min}. At what rate is the height of the liquid in the container changing with respect to time?


Projectile Motion

Integrals

Riemann Sums

Integration by Substitution

solution \int \frac{2x}{x^2+1}\,dx\,

solution \int x^2\sin x^3\,dx\,

solution \int \cot x\,dx\,

solution \int \tan x\sec^2x\,dx\,

solution \int \frac{\ln x^2}{x}\,dx\,

solution \int_{0}^{3} \frac{2x+1}{x^2+x+7}\,dx\,

solution \int_{1}^{e^{\pi}} \frac{\sin (\ln x)}{x}\,dx\,

solution \int \frac{x}{\sqrt{4+x^2}}\,dx\,

solution \int \frac{x}{1-x^2}\,dx\,


Integration by Parts

\int u\,dv=uv-\int v\,du\,

solution \int \ln x\,dx\,

solution \int x\sin(x)\,dx \,

solution \int \arctan(2x)\,dx \,

solution \int e^x\sin x\,dx\,

solution \int x^2e^x\,dx\,

solution \int (x^3+1)\cos x\,dx\,

solution \int x^4\sin x\,dx\,

solution \int \frac{\ln x}{x}\,dx\,

Trigonometric Integrals

solution \int \sin^2(x)\,dx\,

solution \int \tan^2(x)\,dx \,

solution \int \sin^5x\cos^5x\,dx\,

solution \int \sin^2x\cos^3x\,dx\,

solution \int \sin^2x\cos^2x\,dx\,

solution \int \tan^2x\sec^4x\,dx\,

solution \int \tan^3x\sec^3x\,dx\,


Trigonometric Substitution

solution \int\frac{x\,dx}{\sqrt{3-2x-x^2}}

solution \int \arcsec x\,dx \,

solution \int \frac{1}{\sqrt{4x-x^2}}\,dx\,

solution \int x\arcsin x\,dx\,

solution \int \frac{x}{1-x^2}\,dx\,

solution \int \frac{1}{(x^2+1)^{\frac{3}{2}}}\,dx\,

solution \int \frac{\sqrt{x^2-1}}{x}\,dx\,

solution \int \frac{x}{\sqrt{4+x^2}}\,dx\,


Partial Fractions

solution \int\frac{1}{x^2-1}\,dx\,

solution \int\frac{1}{(x+1)(x+2)(x+3)}\,dx\,

solution \int\frac{x!}{(x+n)!}\,dx\,

solution \int \frac{x}{1-x^2}\,dx\,

solution \int\frac{dx}{\sin^2(x)-\cos^2(x)}

Special Functions

solution A ball is thrown up into the air from the ground. How high will it go?

solution Let f\, be a continuous function for x \ge a\,.
Show that \int_a^x \int_a^s f(y)\,dy\,ds = \int_a^x f(y)(x-y)\,dy\,

solution Evaluate \int e^{x^2}\,dx\,

solution \int_0^\infty 3^{-4z^2}dz\,

solution \int_0^\infty x^m e^{-ax^n} dx\,

solution \int_0^\infty x^4 e^{-x^3} \,dx\,

solution \int_0^\infty e^{-pt} \sqrt{t}\,dt\,

Applications of Integration

Area Under the Curve

solution Find the area under the curve f(x) = x2 on the interval [ − 1,1].

solution Find the total area between the curve f(x) = cosx and the x-axis on the interval [0,2π].

solution Find the area under the curve f(x) = x3 + 4x2 − 7x + 8 on the interval [0,1].

solution Using calculus, find the formula for the area of a rectangle.

solution Derive the formula for the area of a circle with arbitrary radius r.

Volume

Disc Method

The disc method is a special case of the method of cross-sectional areas to find volumes, using a circle as the cross-section.

To find the volume of a solid of revolution, using the disc method, use one of the two formulas below. R(x) is the radius of the cross-sectional circle at any point.

If you have a horizontal axis of revolution

V=\pi\int_{a}^{b}[R(x)]^2\,dx

If you have a vertical axis of revolution

V=\pi\int_{c}^{d}[R(y)]^2\,dy

solution Find the volume of the solid generated by revolving the line y = x around the x-axis, where 0\le x\le 4.

solution Find the volume of the solid generated by revolving the region bounded by y = x2 and y = 4xx2 around the x-axis.

solution Find the volume of the solid generated by revolving the region bounded by y = x2 and y = x3 around the x-axis.

solution Find the volume of the solid generated by revolving the region bounded by y = x2 and y = x3 around the y-axis.

solution Find the volume of the solid generated by revolving the region bounded by y=\sqrt{x}, the x-axis and the line x = 4 around the x-axis.

Shell Method

Cross-sectional Areas

solution Find the volume, on the interval 0\le x\le 3, of a 3-D object whose cross-section at any given point is a square with side length x2 − 9x.

solution Find the volume, on the interval 0 < x < 2π, of a 3-D object whose cross-section at any given point is an equilateral triangle with side length \sin \frac{x}{2}.

solution Find the volume of a cylinder with radius 3 and height 10.

Arc Length

L=\int_a^b\sqrt{1+\left(\frac{dy}{dx}\right)^2} \,dx = \int_p^q\sqrt{\left(\frac{dx}{dt}\right)^2+\left(\frac{dy}{dt}\right)^2} \,dt


solution Calculate the arc length of the curve y = x2 from x = 0 to x = 4.

solution Determine the arc length of the curve given by x = t cos t , y = t sin t from t=0

solution Calculate the arc length of y=cosh x from x=0 to x

Mean Value Theorem

f ' (c) = \frac{f(b) - f(a)}{b - a}.

solution Find the average value of the function f(x) = e2x on the interval [0,4].

solution Find the average value of the function 2sec2x on the interval [0,\frac{\pi}{4}].

solution Find the average speed of a car, starting at time 0, if it drives for 5 hours and its speed at time t (in hours) is given by s(t) = 5t2 + 7t + et.

solution Find the average value of the function sin6tcos3t on the interval [0,\frac{\pi}{2}].

solution Deduce the Mean Value Theorem from Rolle's Theorem.

Series of Real Numbers

Sequences

nth Term Test

If the series \sum_{n=1}^{\infty}a_n converges, then \lim_{n\rightarrow \infty}a_n=0.

Note: This leads to a test for divergence for those series whose terms do not go to 0 but it does not tell us if any series converges.

solution Discuss the convergence or divergence of the series with terms { − 1,1, − 1,1, − 1,1,...}.

solution Discuss the convergence or divergence of the series \sum_{n=1}^{\infty}\frac{1}{n} and \sum_{n=1}^{\infty}\frac{1}{n^2}.

solution Discuss the convergence or divergence of the series \sum_{n=0}^{\infty}\sin n.

Telescopic Series

If {ak} is a convergent real sequence, then \sum_{k=1}^{\infty}(a_k-a_{k+1})=a_1-\lim_{k\rightarrow \infty}a_k.

solution Discuss the convergence or divergence of the series \sum_{k=1}^{\infty}\left(\frac{1}{k+7}-\frac{1}{k+8}\right).

solution Discuss the convergence or divergence of the series \sum_{k=0}^{\infty}\frac{2}{(k+1)(k+3)}.

solution Discuss the convergence or divergence of the series \sum_{k=2}^{\infty}\ln \left(\frac{k(k+2)}{(k+1)^2}\right).

solution Discuss the convergence or divergence of the series \sum_{k=4}^{\infty}\left(\frac{1}{k}-\frac{1}{k+2}\right).

solution Discuss the convergence or divergence of the series \sum_{k=0}^{\infty}\left(e^{-k}-e^{-(k+1)}\right).

solution Discuss the convergence or divergence of the series \sum_{k=4}^{\infty}\left(e^{-k+3}-e^{-k+1}\right).

Geometric Series

The series \sum_{n=0}^{\infty}r^n converges if − 1 < r < 1 and, moreover, it converges to \frac{1}{1-r}. For any other value of r, the series diverges. More generally, the finite series, \sum_{n=a}^{b}r^n=\frac{r^a-r^{b+1}}{1-r} for any value of r.

solution Discuss the convergence or divergence of the series \sum_{n=0}^{\infty}\left (\frac{1}{4}\right )^n.

solution Discuss the convergence or divergence of the series \sum_{n=3}^{\infty}\left (\frac{2}{3}\right )^n.

solution Discuss the convergence or divergence of the series \sum_{n=0}^{\infty}1.5^n.

solution Discuss the convergence or divergence of the series \sum_{n=0}^{\infty}\left (\frac{1}{6}\right )^{n+2}.

solution Discuss the convergence or divergence of the series \sum_{n=10}^{\infty}\left (\frac{3}{5}\right )^n.

solution Discuss the convergence or divergence of the series \sum_{n=7}^{\infty}\left (-\frac{1}{2}\right )^n.

solution Discuss the convergence or divergence of the series \sum_{n=7}^{\infty}\left[\left (-\frac{4}{7}\right )^{n+3}+\left (\frac{1}{3}\right )^{n-2}\right]\,.

solution Discuss the convergence or divergence of the series \sum_{n=0}^{\infty}\frac{3^{n+1}}{7^n}.

solution Discuss the convergence or divergence of the series \sum_{n=0}^{\infty}\left (\frac{1}{3}\right )^{2n}.

Integral Test

If the function f is positive, continuous, and decreasing for x\ge 1, then

\sum_{n=1}^{\infty}f(n)\, and \int_{1}^{\infty}f(x)\,dx\,

converge together or diverge together.

Notice that if f were negative, continuous, and increasing this is also true since such a function would simply be the negative of some function which is positive, continuous, and decreasing and multiplying by -1 will not change the convergence of a series.

solution Discuss the convergence of \sum_{n=1}^{\infty}\frac{1}{n+1}.

solution Discuss the convergence of \sum_{n=0}^{\infty}e^{-3n}.

solution Discuss the convergence of \sum_{n=1}^{\infty}\frac{1}{n^5}.

solution Discuss the convergence of \sum_{n=1}^{\infty}\frac{n}{e^n}.

solution Explain why the integral test is or is not applicable to \sum_{n=1}^{\infty}n^2.

solution Explain why the integral test is or is not applicable to \sum_{n=1}^{\infty}-\frac{1}{n^2}.

solution Explain why the integral test is or is not applicable to \sum_{n=1}^{\infty}\frac{|\sin n|+1}{\ln (n+1)}.

solution Discuss the convergence of \sum_{n=1}^{\infty}\frac{1}{n^p}.

solution Discuss the convergence of \sum_{n=1}^{\infty}\frac{1}{n^{\frac{7}{3}}}.

solution Discuss the convergence of \sum_{n=1}^{\infty}\frac{1}{\sqrt [3] {n}}.

Comparison of Series

Direct Comparison
If 0<a_n\le b_n for all n
If \sum_{n=1}^{\infty}b_n converges, then \sum_{n=1}^{\infty}a_n also converges.
2. If \sum_{n=1}^{\infty}a_n diverges, then \sum_{n=1}^{\infty}b_n also diverges.
Limit Comparison
Suppose an > 0, bn > 0 and \lim_{n\rightarrow \infty}\frac{a_n}{b_n}=L where L is finite and positive.
Then \sum_{n=1}^{\infty}a_n and \sum_{n=1}^{\infty}b_n either both converge or both diverge.

solution Discuss the convergence or divergence of the series \sum_{n=1}^{\infty}\frac{1}{n^3+4}.

solution Discuss the convergence or divergence of the series \sum_{n=1}^{\infty}\frac{\ln n}{n-3}.

solution Discuss the convergence or divergence of the series \sum_{n=1}^{\infty}\frac{2n^2}{4n^4+8n^3+3}.

solution Discuss the convergence or divergence of the series \sum_{n=1}^{\infty}\frac{1}{n\sqrt{n^2+1}}.

solution Discuss the convergence or divergence of the series \sum_{n=1}^{\infty}\frac{n+4}{(n+2)(n+1)} .

solution Discuss the convergence or divergence of the series \sum_{n=1}^{\infty}\sin \frac{1}{n}.

solution Discuss the convergence or divergence of the series \sum_{n=1}^{\infty}\frac{n+1}{n\times 3^{n+1}}.

Dirichlet's Test

Let a_k, b_k\in \mathbb{R} for k\in \mathbb{N}.

If the sequence of partial sums s_n=\sum_{k=1}^{n}a_k is bounded and b_k\downarrow 0 as k\rightarrow \infty, then \sum_{k=1}^{\infty}a_kb_k converges.

solution Discuss the convergence or divergence of the series \sum_{k=1}^{\infty}\frac{\sin \frac{k\pi}{2}}{k}.

solution Discuss the convergence or divergence of the series \sum_{k=2}^{\infty}\frac{\sin \frac{k\pi}{3}}{\ln k}.

solution Discuss the convergence or divergence of the series \sum_{k=7}^{\infty}\left(-\frac{1}{2}\right)^k.

solution Discuss the convergence or divergence of the series \sum_{k=1}^{\infty}\frac{1}{k2^k}.

solution Discuss the convergence or divergence of the series \sum_{k=3}^{\infty}\frac{1}{\ln (\ln k)}\cos \left(\frac{k\pi}{3}\right).

solution Discuss the convergence or divergence of the series \sum_{k=1}^{\infty}a_k\frac{1}{k^3} where ak = {7,4,6,3, − 10, − 10,7,4,6,3, − 10, − 10,...}.

solution Discuss the convergence or divergence of the series \sum_{k=1}^{\infty}\sin \frac{2k\pi}{n}\frac{1}{\ln (\ln (\ln k))} for any integer n\ge 1.

solution Discuss the convergence or divergence of the series \sum_{k=3}^{\infty}\frac{\ln (\ln k)}{\ln k}a_k where {ak} = {1, − 1,1,2, − 3,1,2,4, − 7,1, − 1,1,2, − 3,1,2,4, − 7,...}.

Alternating Series

If an, then the alternating series

\sum_{n=1}^{\infty}(-1)^na_n\, and \sum_{n=1}^{\infty}(-1)^{n+1}a_n\,

converge if the absolute value of the terms decreases and goes to 0.

solution Discuss the convergence of the series \sum_{n=1}^{\infty}\frac{(-1)^n}{n}\,.

solution Discuss the convergence of the series \sum_{n=1}^{\infty}\frac{(-1)^{n+1}n^2}{n^2+1}\,.

solution Discuss the convergence of the series \sum_{n=1}^{\infty}\cos (n\pi)\,.

solution Discuss the convergence of the series \sum_{n=1}^{\infty}\frac{(-1)^n}{\sqrt{n}}\,.

solution Discuss the convergence of the series \sum_{n=1}^{\infty}\frac{(-1)^{n+1}n^2}{e^n}\,.

solution Discuss the convergence of \sum_{n=2}^{\infty}\frac{(-1)^n}{\ln n} including whether the sum converges absolutely or conditionally.

solution Discuss the convergence of \sum_{n=1}^{\infty}\frac{(-1)^{n+1}}{n^2+3n+4} including whether the sum converges absolutely or conditionally.

solution Discuss the convergence of \sum_{n=1}^{\infty}\frac{(-1)^n}{n!} including whether the sum converges absolutely or conditionally.

Ratio Test

For the infinite series \sum_{n=1}^{\infty}a_n,

1. If 0\le \lim_{n\rightarrow \infty}\left|\frac{a_{n+1}}{a_n}\right|<1\,, then the series converges absolutely.

2. If \lim_{n\rightarrow \infty}\left|\frac{a_{n+1}}{a_n}\right|>1\,, then the series diverges.

3. If \lim_{n\rightarrow \infty}\left|\frac{a_{n+1}}{a_n}\right|=1\,, then the test is inconclusive.

solution Discuss the convergence or divergence of the series \sum_{n=1}^{\infty}\frac{2^n}{(2n)!}.

solution Discuss the convergence or divergence of the series \sum_{n=1}^{\infty}\frac{n}{3^{n+1}}.

solution Discuss the convergence or divergence of the series \sum_{n=1}^{\infty}\frac{1}{n^3}.

solution Discuss the convergence or divergence of the series \sum_{n=1}^{\infty}\frac{1}{n}.

solution Discuss the convergence or divergence of the series \sum_{n=1}^{\infty}\frac{3^n}{n^2+2}.

solution Discuss the convergence or divergence of the series \sum_{n=1}^{\infty}\frac{n}{(n+2)!}.

solution Discuss the convergence or divergence of the series \sum_{n=1}^{\infty}\frac{n4^n}{n!}.

solution Discuss the convergence or divergence of the series \sum_{n=1}^{\infty}\frac{n!}{4^n}.

solution Discuss the convergence or divergence of the series \sum_{n=1}^{\infty}\frac{n^ka^n}{n!}.

Root Test

Let a_k\in\mathbb{R} and r=\limsup_{k\rightarrow \infty}|a_k|^\frac{1}{k}

1. If r<1\,, then \sum_{k=1}^{\infty}a_k converges absolutely.

2. If r>1\,, then \sum_{k=1}^{\infty}a_k diverges.

3. If r=1\,, this test is inconclusive.

solutionDiscuss the convergence or divergence of the series \sum_{n=1}^{\infty}\left(\frac{n}{2n+1}\right)^n.

solutionDiscuss the convergence or divergence of the series \sum_{n=1}^{\infty}e^{-n}.

solutionDiscuss the convergence or divergence of the series \sum_{n=1}^{\infty}\frac{n}{3^n}.

solutionDiscuss the convergence or divergence of the series \sum_{n=1}^{\infty}\left(\frac{2n}{100}\right)^n.

solutionDiscuss the convergence or divergence of the series \sum_{n=1}^{\infty}\frac{(n!)^n}{(n^n)^2}.

solutionDiscuss the convergence or divergence of the series \sum_{n=1}^{\infty}\left(\frac{7n}{12n-6}\right)^{2n}.

solutionDiscuss the convergence or divergence of the series \sum_{n=1}^{\infty}\left(\frac{15n-6}{4n+2}\right)^{7n}.

solutionDiscuss the convergence or divergence of the series \sum_{n=1}^{\infty}\frac{n!}{(n+1)^n}\left(\frac{23}{50}\right)^n.

Cauchy Condensation Test

The series \sum_{k=1}^{\infty}a_k and \sum_{k=1}^{\infty}2^ka_{2^k} converge or diverge together.

solutionDiscuss the convergence or divergence of the series \sum_{k=1}^{\infty}\frac{1}{k}.

solutionDiscuss the convergence or divergence of the series \sum_{k=1}^{\infty}\frac{1}{\ln k}.

solutionDiscuss the convergence or divergence of the series \sum_{k=1}^{\infty}\frac{1}{k^2}.

solutionDiscuss the convergence or divergence of the series \sum_{k=1}^{\infty}\frac{1}{\sqrt{2^k}}.

solutionDiscuss the convergence or divergence of the series \sum_{k=1}^{\infty}\frac{1}{(2^k)^n}, where n is some real number.

Logarithmic Test

Raabe's Test

Series of Real Functions

solution Find the infinite series expansion of \frac{1}{(1+x)^a}\,

solution Investigate the convergence of this series: \sum_{k=1}^\infty \frac{1}{k(k+1)}\,

solution Investigate the convergence of this series:  3-2+\frac{4}{3}-\frac{8}{9}+...+3\left(-\frac{2}{3}\right)^k+... \,

solution Find the upper limit of the sequence \left\{x_n\right\}_{n=1}^\infty, x_n=(-1)^nn\,

solution Find the upper limit of the sequence \left\{x_n\right\}_{n=1}^\infty, x_n=(-1)^n\left(\frac{2n}{n+1}\right)\,

solution Evaluate \sum_{k=0}^n {n \choose k}^2\,

solution Evaluate \sum_{m=1}^\infty\sum_{n=1}^\infty\frac{m^2\,n}{3^m\left(m\,3^n+n\,3^m\right)}.

solution Find the upper limit of the sequence \left\{x_n\right\}_{n=1}^\infty, x_n=\frac{1}{n^2}\,

solution Find the upper limit of the sequence \left\{x_n\right\}_{n=1}^\infty, x_n=n\sin\left(\frac{n\pi}{2}\right)\,

solution Evaluate \sum_{n=0}^\infty \left(\frac{i}{3}\right)^n\,

solution Determine the interval of convergence for the power series \sum_{n=0}^\infty\frac{n(3x-4)^n}{\sqrt[3]{n^4}(2x)^{n-1}}.


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