Fluid statics (also called hydrostatics) is the science of fluids at rest, and is a sub-field within fluid mechanics. The term usually refers to the mathematical treatment of the subject. It embraces the study of the conditions under which fluids are at rest in stable equilibrium. The use of fluid to do work is called hydraulics, and the science of fluids in motion is fluid dynamics.
Static pressure in fluids
Due to an inability to resist deformation, fluids exert pressure normal to any contacting surface. In addition, when the fluid is at rest (static) that pressure is isotropic, i.e. it acts with equal magnitude in all directions. This characteristic allows fluids to transmit force through the length of pipes or tubes, i.e., a force applied to a fluid in a pipe is transmitted, via the fluid, to the other end of the pipe. If the force is unequal, the fluid will move in the direction of the resulting force.
This concept was first formulated, in a slightly extended form, by the French mathematician and philosopher Blaise Pascal in 1647, and would be later known as Pascal's Law. This law has many important applications in hydraulics. Galileo Galilei, also was a major father of hydrostatics.
Considering a small cube of water at rest below a free surface, the weight of the water above must be balanced by a pressure in this small cube. For an infinitely small cube, this weight or equivalent pressure can be expressed as
where, using SI units,
P is the hydrostatic pressure (in pascals);
ρ is the water density (in kilograms per cubic meter);
g is gravitational acceleration (in meters per second squared);
h is the height of fluid above (in meters).
The Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution predicts that, for a gas of constant temperature, T, its density, ρ, will vary with height, h, as:
- ρ(h) = ρ(0)e − gh / kT,
A solid body immersed in a fluid will have an upward buoyant force acting on it equal to the weight of displaced fluid. This is due to the hydrostatic pressure in the fluid.
In the case of a container ship, for instance, its weight force is balanced by a buoyant force from the displaced water, allowing it to float. If more cargo is loaded onto the ship, it would sit lower in the water - displacing more water and thus receive a higher buoyant force to balance the increased weight force.
A floating object is stable if it tends to restore itself to an equilibrium position after a small displacement. For example, floating objects will generally have vertical stability, as if the object is pushed down slightly, this will create a greater buoyant force, which, unbalanced against the weight force will push the object back up.
Rotational stability is of great importance to floating vessels. Given a small angular displacement, the vessel may return to its original position (stable), move away from its original position (unstable), or remain where it is (neutral).
Rotational stability depends on the relative lines of action of forces on an object. The upward buoyant force on an object acts through the centre of buoyancy, being the centroid of the displaced volume of fluid. The weight force on the object acts through its centre of gravity. An object will be stable if an angular displacement moves the line of action of these forces to set up a 'righting moment'.
Liquids-fluids with free surfaces
Liquids can have free surfaces at which they interface with gases, or with a vacuum. In general, the lack of the ability to sustain a shear stress entails that free surfaces rapidly adjust towards a equilibrium. However, on small length scales, there is an important balancing force from surface tension.
Surface tension effects
When liquids are constrained in vessels whose dimensions are small, compared to the relevant length scales, surface tension effects become important leading to the formation of a meniscus through capillary action.
Without surface tension, drops would not be able to form. The dimensions and stability of drops are determined by surface tension.